Antecedent – the word to which a pronoun refers
Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae
Gaul is as a whole divided into three parts, one of which the Belgians inhabit
frūmentātum: to fetch grain
rogātum: to ask
perfacile factū: easy to do
mīrābile dictū: wonderful to say
Gerund (Verbal Noun)
ad proficiscendum: for the purpose of setting out
Gerundive (Future Passive Participle)
Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās: for the purpose of completing these things
bellī īnferendī causā: for the sake of bringing war
it had to be jumped down by the soldiers (dative of agent)
Purpose Clause – Main Clause + ut/utī (so that, to) or nē (so that not, not to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive
Sabīnus...id clāriōre vōce, ut magna pars mīlitum exaudīret...inquit.
Sabinus said this with a clearer voice so that a great part of the soldiers might hear [him].
[Orgetorīx] nē causam dīceret sē ēripuit
[Orgetorix] snatched himself away so that he would not plead [his] case
Indirect Command – Main Clause with verbs of urging, asking, or warning + ut/utī (to) or nē (not to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive
Hic servō...persuādet...ut litterās ad Caesarem dēferat.
He persuades the slave...to bring down the letters to Caesar.
Result Clause – Main Clause with one of the following (expressed or implied): TAM (so), TANTUS (such great), TĀLIS (such), TOT (so many), ITA / SĪC (in this way), ADEŌ (to such an extent) + ut/utī (that) or ut/utī nōn (that not) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive
Tanta tempestās subitō coorta est ut nūlla eārum cursum tenēre posset.
Such a great storm suddenly arose that not one of them was able to hold course.
Mōns autem altissimus impendēbat, ut facile perpaucī prohibēre possent.
Furthermore a very high mountain was overhanging, [in such a way] that very few easily were able to keep [them] away.
Substantive Clause of Result – Main Clause with ACCIDIT / FIT (it happens) or EFFICIŌ (I bring it about) + ut/utī (that) / ut/utī nōn (that not) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive
Hīs rēbus fīēbat ut et minus lātē vagārentur et minus facile fīnitimīs bellum īnferre possent.
With these things it happened that they both wandered less widely and were able to bring war less easily upon [their] neighbors.
Reliquīs ut nāvigārī commodē posset effēcit.
He brought it about that it was able to be sailed advantageously in the other [ships].
sī gravius quid acciderit, abs tē ratiōnem reposcent
if anything more serious will have happened, they will demand an account from you
‘Desilite,’ inquit, ‘milites, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prodere
he says, ‘Jump down, soldiers, unless you want to forsake the eagle to the enemies
Omnia excōgitantur, quārē nec sine perīculō maneātur
All [things] are devised, why it is not remained without danger
Ibi ex captīvīs cognōscit quae apud Cicerōnem gerantur quantōque in perīculō rēs sit.
There he learns from the captives what [things] are being done with Cicero and in what great danger the situation is.
Fearing Clause ("nē" is used instead of "ut" and vice versa)
veritus...nē cīvitās eōrum impulsū dēficeret
having feared that the state might revolt by their instigation
Relative Clause of Characteristic
Erant omnīnō itinera duo, quibus itineribus domō exīre possent:
There were entirely two journeys, by which journeys they might be able to go out from home:
Relative Clause of Purpose – Main Clause + quī (so that, to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive
lēgātōs ad eum mittunt nōbilissimōs cīvitātis...quī dīcerent sibi esse in animō
they send the noblest ambassadors of the state to him...to say [that] there was to them in [their] mind
Indirect Statement – Verb of Perceiving/Saying + Accusative + Infinitive
nēminem posteā...in Britanniam trānsitūrum [esse] cōnfīdēbant
they trusted [that] no one afterwards...would cross into Britain
Imperative – Command
Aenēās...“Dīc,” ait, “ō virgō, quid vult concursus ad amnem?
Aeneas...says, “Say, oh maiden, what does the crowd want at the river?
fāre age, quid veniās, iam istinc et comprime gressum
say, come on, why you come, and now from there restrain [your] step
Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae
Of all these the Belgians are the bravest
nōn esse dubium quīn tōtīus Galliae plūrimum Helvētiī possent
[that] there is no doubt that the Helvetians were the most powerful of all Gaul
sī quicquam ab eīs praesidī spērent
if they should hope for anything of help from those [other Romans]
nē quid ex contāgiōne incommodī accipiant
so that they may not receive anything of harm from contact
Genitive with an Adjective
mindful of the old war
Genitive with a Verb of Remembering or Forgetting
Heu, rēgnī rērumque oblīte tuārum!
Alas, [you] having forgotten the kingdom and your things!
nec mē meminisse pigēbit Elissae
and it will not displease me to remember Elissa
Dative of Agent
it had to be jumped down by the soldiers
Dative of Possession
nōndum illī flāvum Prōserpina vertice crīnem abstulerat
Proserpina had not yet carried away the golden hair [belonging] to her from [her] head
Double Dative – Dative of Reference with a Dative of Purpose
quae rēs magnō ūsuī nostrīs fuit
this thing was for great use to our [soldiers]
nē qua legiō alterae legiōnī subsidiō venīre posset
so that not any legion might be able to come for support to the other legion
magnō esse Germānīs dolōrī Ariovistī mortem et superiōrēs nostrās victōriās
the death of Ariovistus and our previous victories were for a great sadness to the Germans
sī reī pūblicae commodō facere posset
[to see] if he might be able to do [it] for advantage to the republic
Dative with a Special Verb – THREATEN, HARM, PLEASE, TRUST, RESIST, PERSUADE, COMMAND, OBEY, SERVE, PARDON, ENVY, FAVOR, SPARE
Tum cuidam ex equitibus Gallīs magnīs praemiīs persuādet
Then he persuades a certain [one] of the Gallic horsemen with great rewards
quod repentīnae Gallōrum coniūrātiōnī resistere nōn potuerit
because he was not able to resist the sudden conspiracy of the Gauls
Accusative of Duration of Time
Ego...ūnā cum gente tot annōs bella gerō
I wage wars with one nation [for] so many years
Accusative of Respect
perque pedēs trāiectus lōra tumentēs
and having been pierced [in respect to] leather straps through the feet being swollen
exuviās indūtus Achillī
having been dressed [in respect to] the spoils of Achilles
M. Messālā, M. Pūpiō Pīsōne cōnsulibus
with Marcus Messala [and] Marcus Pupius Piso [as] consuls
Diē cōnstitūtā causae dictiōnis
With the day of the pleading of the case having been decided
domum reditiōnis spē sublātā
with the hope of returning home having been removed
magnā iuvenum stīpante catervā
with a great crowd of young people accompanying
Ablative of Agent
cum summō studiō ā mīlitibus administrārētur
since it was being managed with the greatest eagerness by the soldiers
Ablative of Comparison
terrīs magis omnibus
more than all lands
Ablative of Manner
turrēs admodum centum XX excitantur incrēdibilī celeritāte
120 towers to a full measure are built with incredible speed
Ablative of Means
continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum
it is bounded by the Garonne river, by the Ocean, [and] by the borders of the Belgians
Ablative of Separation
Trōas, rēliquiās Danaum atque immītis Achillī, arcēbat longē Latiō
she kept far from Latium the Trojans, the remnants of the Greeks and of cruel Achilles
nec posse Ītaliā Teucrōrum āvertere rēgem?
and [I] am not able to turn away the king of the Teucrians from Italy?
Ablative of Specification
cum virtūte omnibus praestārent
since they surpassed all in bravery