• Antecedent – the word to which a pronoun refers

    Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae

    Gaul is as a whole divided into three parts, one of which the Belgians inhabit



    frūmentātum: to fetch grain

    rogātum: to ask

    perfacile factū: easy to do

    mīrābile dictū: wonderful to say


    Gerund (Verbal Noun)

    ad proficiscendum: for the purpose of setting out


    Gerundive (Future Passive Participle)

    Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās: for the purpose of completing these things

    bellī īnferendī causā: for the sake of bringing war


    Passive Periphrastic

    mīlitibus...dēsiliendum [erat]

    it had to be jumped down by the soldiers (dative of agent)


    Purpose Clause – Main Clause + ut/utī (so that, to) or nē (so that not, not to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive

    Sabī clāriōre vōce, ut magna pars mīlitum exaudīret...inquit.

    Sabinus said this with a clearer voice so that a great part of the soldiers might hear [him].


    [Orgetorīx] causam dīceret sē ēripuit

    [Orgetorix] snatched himself away so that he would not plead [his] case


    Indirect Command – Main Clause with verbs of urging, asking, or warning + ut/utī (to) or nē (not to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive

    Hic servō...persuādet...ut litterās ad Caesarem dēferat.

    He persuades the bring down the letters to Caesar.


    Result Clause – Main Clause with one of the following (expressed or implied): TAM (so), TANTUS (such great), TĀLIS (such), TOT (so many), ITA / SĪC (in this way), ADEŌ (to such an extent) + ut/utī (that) or ut/utī nōn (that not) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive

    Tanta tempestās subitō coorta est ut nūlla eārum cursum tenēre posset.

    Such a great storm suddenly arose that not one of them was able to hold course.


    Mōns autem altissimus impendēbat, ut facile perpaucī prohibēre possent.

    Furthermore a very high mountain was overhanging, [in such a way] that very few easily were able to keep [them] away.


    Substantive Clause of Result – Main Clause with ACCIDIT / FIT (it happens) or EFFICIŌ (I bring it about) + ut/utī (that) / ut/utī nōn (that not) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive

    Hīs rēbus fīēbat ut et minus lātē vagārentur et minus facile fīnitimīs bellum īnferre possent.

    With these things it happened that they both wandered less widely and were able to bring war less easily upon [their] neighbors.


    Reliquīs ut nāvigārī commodē posset effēcit.

    He brought it about that it was able to be sailed advantageously in the other [ships].


    Conditional Clauses

    gravius quid acciderit, abs tē ratiōnem reposcent

    if anything more serious will have happened, they will demand an account from you


    ‘Desilite,’ inquit, ‘milites, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prodere

    he says, ‘Jump down, soldiers, unless you want to forsake the eagle to the enemies 


    Indirect Questions

    Omnia excōgitantur, quārē nec sine perīculō maneātur

    All [things] are devised, why it is not remained without danger


    Ibi ex captīvīs cognōscit quae apud Cicerōnem gerantur quantōque in perīculō rēs sit.

    There he learns from the captives what [things] are being done with Cicero and in what great danger the situation is.


    Fearing Clause ("nē" is used instead of "ut" and vice versa)

    veritus... cīvitās eōrum impulsū dēficeret

    having feared that the state might revolt by their instigation


    Relative Clause of Characteristic

    Erant omnīnō itinera duo, quibus itineribus domō exīre possent:

    There were entirely two journeys, by which journeys they might be able to go out from home:


    Relative Clause of Purpose – Main Clause + quī (so that, to) + present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive

    lēgātōs ad eum mittunt nōbilissimōs cīvitātis...quī dīcerent sibi esse in animō

    they send the noblest ambassadors of the state to say [that] there was to them in [their] mind


    Indirect Statement – Verb of Perceiving/Saying + Accusative + Infinitive

    nēminem posteā Britanniam trānsitūrum [esse] cōnfīdēbant

    they trusted [that] no one afterwards...would cross into Britain


    Imperative – Command

    Aenēās...“Dīc,” ait, “ō virgō, quid vult concursus ad amnem?

    Aeneas...says, “Say, oh maiden, what does the crowd want at the river?


    fāre age, quid veniās, iam istinc et comprime gressum

    say, come on, why you come, and now from there restrain [your] step


    Partitive Genitive

    Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae

    Of all these the Belgians are the bravest


    nōn esse dubium quīn tōtīus Galliae plūrimum Helvētiī possent

    [that] there is no doubt that the Helvetians were the most powerful of all Gaul


    sī quicquam ab eīs praesidī spērent

    if they should hope for anything of help from those [other Romans]


    nē quid ex contāgiōne incommodī accipiant

    so that they may not receive anything of harm from contact


    Genitive with an Adjective


    mindful of the old war


    Genitive with a Verb of Remembering or Forgetting

    Heu, rēgnī rērumque oblīte tuārum!

    Alas, [you] having forgotten the kingdom and your things!


    nec mē meminisse pigēbit Elissae

    and it will not displease me to remember Elissa


    Dative of Agent

    mīlitibus...dēsiliendum [erat]

    it had to be jumped down by the soldiers


    Dative of Possession

    nōndum illī flāvum Prōserpina vertice crīnem abstulerat

    Proserpina had not yet carried away the golden hair [belonging] to her from [her] head


    Double Dative – Dative of Reference with a Dative of Purpose

    quae rēs magnō ūsuī nostrīs fuit

    this thing was for great use to our [soldiers]


    nē qua legiō alterae legiōnī subsidiō venīre posset

    so that not any legion might be able to come for support to the other legion


    magnō esse Germānīs dolōrī Ariovistī mortem et superiōrēs nostrās victōriās

    the death of Ariovistus and our previous victories were for a great sadness to the Germans


    reī pūblicae commodō facere posset

    [to see] if he might be able to do [it] for advantage to the republic



    Tum cuidam ex equitibus Gallīs magnīs praemiīs persuādet

    Then he persuades a certain [one] of the Gallic horsemen with great rewards


    quod repentīnae Gallōrum coniūrātiōnī resistere nōn potuerit

    because he was not able to resist the sudden conspiracy of the Gauls


    Accusative of Duration of Time

    Ego...ūnā cum gente tot annōs bella gerō

    I wage wars with one nation [for] so many years


    Accusative of Respect

    perque pedēs trāiectus lōra tumentēs

    and having been pierced [in respect to] leather straps through the feet being swollen


    exuviās indūtus Achillī

    having been dressed [in respect to] the spoils of Achilles


    Ablative Absolute

    M. Messālā, M. Pūpiō Pīsōne cōnsulibus

    with Marcus Messala [and] Marcus Pupius Piso [as] consuls


    Diē cōnstitūtā causae dictiōnis

    With the day of the pleading of the case having been decided


    domum reditiōnis spē sublātā

    with the hope of returning home having been removed


    magnā iuvenum stīpante catervā

    with a great crowd of young people accompanying


    Ablative of Agent

    cum summō studiō ā mīlitibus administrārētur

    since it was being managed with the greatest eagerness by the soldiers


    Ablative of Comparison

    terrīs magis omnibus

    more than all lands


    Ablative of Manner

    turrēs admodum centum XX excitantur incrēdibilī celeritāte

    120 towers to a full measure are built with incredible speed


    Ablative of Means

    continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum

    it is bounded by the Garonne river, by the Ocean, [and] by the borders of the Belgians



    Ablative of Separation

    Trōas, rēliquiās Danaum atque immītis Achillī, arcēbat longē Latiō

    she kept far from Latium the Trojans, the remnants of the Greeks and of cruel Achilles


    nec posse Ītaliā Teucrōrum āvertere rēgem?

    and [I] am not able to turn away the king of the Teucrians from Italy?



    Ablative of Specification

    cum virtūte omnibus praestārent

    since they surpassed all in bravery