• Connections

    Children make personal connections with text by using their schema (background knowledge).  There are three main types of connections we make while reading.

    1. Text-To-Self (TS) connections made between the text and the reader's personal experience. example:  This book reminds me of the time my family went on vacation to Florida.

    2. Text-To-Text (TT) connections made between a text being read to a text that was previously read. example: The character in this book reminds me of another character in a book I read.

    3. Text-To-World (TW) connections made between a text being read to and that something that occurs in the world. example:  The earthquake in this story reminds of the earthquake that just happened.


    Visualization is the ability to build mental pictures or images in our heads while reading.

    "Proficient readers spontaneously and purposely create mental images while and after they read. The images emerge from all five senses as well as the emotions and are anchored in a reader's prior knowledge."
    -- Keene and Zimmerman, Mosaic of Thought

    Some ideas to help with visualization:

    1. Use wordless picture books - with the clues revealed in the illustrations and the missing pictures we create in our minds we make meaning.

    2. Stop during reading and describe the pictures in your mind.

    3. After reading, draw the picture in your mind.

    Inferring- Reading Between The Lines

     Good readers draw inferences from text. Proficient readers use their prior knowledge the information from the text to draw conclusions, make critical judgments, and form unique interpretations from text. Inference may occur in the form of conclusions, predictions or new ideas.       
                         Ellin Keene and Susan Zimmermann, Mosaic of Thought
    Students use what they already know (background knowledge), plus text clues to come up with ideas that are not written in the text.
    Questioning- Who, What, When, Where, How

    "The research shows that children who struggle as readers tend not to ask questions at any time as they read -- before, during, or after... They're inert as they read. They read -- or I should say they submit to the text -- never questioning its content, style, or the intent of the author."

    Keene/Zimmerman Mosaic Of Thought

    Before Questions:
    What do you think the book is about?
    What do you think will happen in the book?
    During Questions:
    Why did the character....?
    Who is ....?
    I don't understand the part where....?
    After Questions:
    Why did the author write this?
    Can you summarize the main ideas of the text?
    Determining Importance
    When students are reading nonfiction they have to decide and remember what is important from the material they read.
    The purpose is to teach students to discriminate the "must know" information from the less important details in a text. "When kids read and understand nonfiction, they build background for the topic and acquire new knowledge. The ability to identify essential ideas and salient information is a prerequisite to developing insight." (Strategies that Work, 2000, p. 119).

    To help you students determine importance while they are reading:

    • Initiate discussion before reading by asking what your students know about the topic and what they would like to learn.
    • After reading discuss what important information they have learned.
    • While reading, help your students look for clues in the text to determine importance.
      Pay attention to:
    • first and last lines of a paragraph
    • titles
    • headings
    • captions
    • framed text
    • fonts
    • illustrations
    • italics
    • bold faced print

    Snythesizing -

    Students weave together what they read and their own ideas into new complete thoughts.

    Readers comprehend better when they sift through information to make sense of it and to act upon it - such as judging or evaluating the author's purpose to form a new idea, opinion, or perspective. This is the highest and most complex form of comprehension.

    How to help your student use this strategy:

    • Use questioning strategies such as, "How has your thinking changed from reading that piece?"
    • Discuss current events with an emphasis on judgments and opinions.
    • Ask questions with no clear answers.





Metacognition is thinking about our thinking.