Children make personal connections with text by using their schema (background knowledge). There are three main types of connections we make while reading.
1. Text-To-Self (TS) connections made between the text and the reader's personal experience. example: This book reminds me of the time my family went on vacation to Florida.
2. Text-To-Text (TT) connections made between a text being read to a text that was previously read. example: The character in this book reminds me of another character in a book I read.
3. Text-To-World (TW) connections made between a text being read to and that something that occurs in the world. example: The earthquake in this story reminds of the earthquake that just happened.
Visualization is the ability to build mental pictures or images in our heads while reading.
"Proficient readers spontaneously and purposely create mental images while and after they read. The images emerge from all five senses as well as the emotions and are anchored in a reader's prior knowledge."
-- Keene and Zimmerman, Mosaic of Thought
Some ideas to help with visualization:
1. Use wordless picture books - with the clues revealed in the illustrations and the missing pictures we create in our minds we make meaning.
2. Stop during reading and describe the pictures in your mind.
3. After reading, draw the picture in your mind.
Inferring- Reading Between The Lines
"The research shows that children who struggle as readers tend not to ask questions at any time as they read -- before, during, or after... They're inert as they read. They read -- or I should say they submit to the text -- never questioning its content, style, or the intent of the author."
Keene/Zimmerman Mosaic Of Thought
To help you students determine importance while they are reading:
- Initiate discussion before reading by asking what your students know about the topic and what they would like to learn.
- After reading discuss what important information they have learned.
- While reading, help your students look for clues in the text to determine importance.
Pay attention to:
- first and last lines of a paragraph
- framed text
- bold faced print
Students weave together what they read and their own ideas into new complete thoughts.
Readers comprehend better when they sift through information to make sense of it and to act upon it - such as judging or evaluating the author's purpose to form a new idea, opinion, or perspective. This is the highest and most complex form of comprehension.
How to help your student use this strategy:
- Use questioning strategies such as, "How has your thinking changed from reading that piece?"
- Discuss current events with an emphasis on judgments and opinions.
- Ask questions with no clear answers.